Posts Tagged ‘ Guitars ’

Examples of using group busses

Group busses are a versatile and useful mixing technique. They’re often used in a variety of different situations:

  • Distorted guitar stacks. It’s quite common to layer or doubletrack (or tripletrack or quadrupletrack) distorted guitar parts in order to make them sound bigger. Sometimes the layers are all recorded with the same setup (same guitar, same amp, same mic position, etc), but it’s just as common that the layers are recorded with different setups. The layers blend to form a composite guitar sound that the listener hears as a single diffuse part. Because all these layers function as a single part, it often makes sense to treat them as a single channel when mixing the bigger picture. By using a group bus, the layers can all be treated as one. This means that when you’re fitting the guitars in the context of the rest of the mix, you can set the level and tone of the guitars as if they’re a single part.
  • Backing vocals. Much the same as distorted guitars, it’s common to treat layered backing vocals as if they’re a single sound source. This is especially useful when there are several layers that are singing the same words with the same rhythm. Unlike layered distorted guitars, it’s also common the different layers of backing vocals to be singing different harmony parts. Another difference is that backing vocals often benefit from some compression (distorted guitars often already have flat dynamics due to the distortion). When dealing with backing vocals, it’s often useful to compress each individual channels as well as the group bus. That way, each compressor can work gently while still resulting in a smooth and consistent sound.
  • Pads. While not as commonly spoken about, grouping pads can be very useful for the same reasons as distorted guitars and backing vocals. Some particularly interesting effects can be created by combining several layers of different pulsing pads and then compressing the group. Done well, this will produce a texture that is more consistent in level but is constantly changing in tonality.
  • Drum kit. This is a huge topic! The way drums and compressors interact can be quite complex. The sound is influenced by a variety of factors, ranging from the way the kit is played to the selection of kit components to the choice of miss and recording medium to the design and settings of the compressors. Like backing vocals, it’s common to compress individual drums in addition to compressing the drum group bus. Used lightly, drum group compression can give the whole kit a sense of glue and life and density. Just remember not to overdo it – too much compression will flatten your drums and make them difficult to work into the mix!
  • Kick and bass. This is a technique that has been used subtly for some time, but has recently become more fashionable with modern dance music. By grouping the kick and bass and applying strong compression to that group, the bass will duck slightly when the kick is sounding. This will make the low end of the mix more compact and solid. This is now commonly taken to extremes with the use of side chain compression – instead of using a group bus, the bass is processed with a compressor that is keyed (‘side-chained’) from the kick.

Group busses are most useful when you have several tracks that all perform a similar function in the mix and you want to either glue them together or otherwise treat them as a single unit. Of course, you can group anything you like. It’s important, however, to keep in mind that sometimes it doesn’t make sense to use group busses. Often it doesn’t make sense to group tracks that aren’t related to each other or need to remain separate.

On the other hand, you might find some interesting sounds by using group busses in unusual ways…

-Kim.

 

Masking

Masking is a little-understood concept that is important to composers and mix engineers. Essentially, masking is what happens when one sound makes it difficult to hear another sound. An obvious example of this is two instruments playing the same note, with one instrument sounding much louder than the other.

This can happen with notes or chords, where the voicing of one instrument covers up another, softer instrument. It can also happen with frequencies, where an element of one sound covers up an element of another sound. As with the example above, this happens when two instruments are playing the same note or frequency range and one is much louder than the other.

It can also happen when the notes or frequencies are not exactly the same, but nearby. The effect is particularly strong when both instruments are playing the same or similar parts, and the sounds blend very well. A common example is of distorted guitars and distorted bass. On its own, the distorted bass might have a heavy growl caused by a lot of energy in the lower mids and a crunchy fuzz on top. Once the guitars are brought in, however, the bass is reduced to a low-frequency rumble beneath the guitars. Even though the main energy of the guitars might be in the upper mids, it masks the upper harmonics in the distorted bass.

Another example is vocal harmonies. A song might have a section where the main melody is sung in parallel harmony – perhaps a third or fourth apart. If both voices are similar (sung by the same singer, in the same style, with similar processing), our ear will hear the upper harmony as being much more prominent than the lower harmony. The effect is sometimes quite striking – the lower harmony simply blends into the upper harmony.

These are both cases of the higher sound masking the lower sound.

Sometimes masking is useful, as it allows a sound to be thickened or deepened by adding other sounds to it. Other times it is undesirable as it makes it difficult for the listener to distinguish between the different sounds.

In the bass/guitar example, greater separation could be achieved by filtering or EQ so that each instrument contributes a unique sonic component to the mix. Alternatively, each instrument could be given a different depth. For example, the bass could be up front and the guitar further back in the mix.

In the vocal example, greater separation could be achieved by instructing the singer to perform each part differently – such as whispering one part, or perhaps singing one part forcefully. Better yet, have a different singer perform one of the parts.

-Kim.